For petroleum, coal and biomass refining/ conversions
Surrogate compounds must be used for difficult-to-characterize (termed non-stoichiometric here) feed or reactants of petroleum, coal and biomass conversion processes. The smart-pack built-in data bases of both reaction mechanisms/ chemistries and Thermophysical properties include an extensive list of these compounds for prompt data analysis, development and designs of these processes.
Pyrolysis of coal and biomass
- The complex mechanism and kinetics of pyrolysis of coal of different ranks from anthracite to bituminous to lignite, has been studied at length and documented by a Difrex team member in a
on the subject.
- Clear guidelines to account for the phenomena of vitrification,
flash, rapid, intermediate and slow pyrolysis
of coal that lead to distinctly different gas to liquid product ratio is provided. These guidelines and principles can be very helpful in biomass conversion process development and designs.
Reaction system: FCC 5-Lump reactions with Gas oil feed
GASOIL <----> 2.125 gasoline Rxn 1
GASOIL <----> 8.50 DRYGAS Rxn 2
GASOIL <----> 4.1026 LPG Rxn 3
GASOIL <----> 19.8851 COKE Rxn 4
gasoline <----> 4.000 DRYGAS Rxn 5
gasoline <----> 1.9306 LPG Rxn 6
gasoline <----> 9.3426 COKE Rxn 7
LPG <----> 2.0718 DRYGAS Rxn 8
Performance simulation of an FCC reactor for Gas oil conversion has been successfully carried out using surrogate compounds for Gasoil, gasoline, dry gas, LPG and coke
Successful applications of fundamental principles of reaction engineering, instead of pure empiricism, to typical petroleum, coal and biomass conversion processes have been demonstrated